Domestic Violence

Domestic violence is a global problem which occurs in both industrialized and developing countries.Domestic violence is a very serious social problem if not dealt with can go a long way to affect individuals and society a whole.Wife battering is prevalent and normal in India to the extent that is considered normal and not taken serious.According to a survey taken,20% of people who experience domestic violence considered it normal because they were used to it.Many factors causes the prevalence of wife battering in India.These factors include: drunken husbands who come home and beat their wives due to their frustrations in life,dowry,neglect of household duties and so on.

Child abuse has occurred since time immemorial .Industrialization and modernization has led to the increase of child abuse.In India middle class families experience a lot of stress due to modernization and industrialization because of this children are abused in order for parents to fit in society or to earn a living.Also corporal punishment which is a form of child abuse is used very much in India to raise children.They believe that the right way to punish a child for his/her mistake is through corporal punishment.Lastly,because society considers male children for industrial purposes,female children who are born to Indian parents are mostly neglected which is also a form of abuse.

Visible violence can also be called physical violence.This is a type of violence in which husbands beat their wives due to one reason or the other.The women who are being abused feel that the situation is predestined in accordance with Confucian ideology.One report indicates that 87.5%  of divorces in 1992 was as a result of violence.Invisible violence on the other hand is characterized by fear and intimidation.An example is women coming home from work and doing house chores for six hours.

By Lynsy

Domestic Violence

The book “Domestic Violence: a Cross-Cultural View” by Elaine Leeder explores the forms of domestic violence that occur in many different cultures. For example, wife beating is a form of domestic violence that is very common in India. She reveals this horrible truth as more of a cultural norm in Indian society, stating that only 22% of women surveyed  admitted to having had been beaten. This seems like a generally low number, however as Leeder mentions, we must take into account the fact that in India it is unacceptable to admit to being abused and only those women who are seriously suffering from the effects of such abuse would admit to it. Shockingly, the majority of women getting abused wouldn’t even think to mention it as a problem because the practice is so commonplace. Many believe that such violence is prevalent in Indian households because of family norms practiced by this culture. Such violence is socially acceptable under certain circumstances such as a woman’s infidelity, dowry problems, neglect of the household duties, or disobedience to her husband. Wife beating has become so tightly knit into Indian society that it is not seen as a problem unless it is very extreme, in which case an intervention occurs by the village monk.  The same goes for child abuse, as the Indian family values strict discipline and obedience of children.

Industrialization and modernization have influenced such domestic violences, and has lead to a rise in child abuse in India. This is because these processes lead to rising economic expectations which the family must endure. These pressures are released in the household and put on the children who will be beaten and abused in hopes that this corporal punishment will lead them to be socially skilled and responsible adults.

This leads to the discussion of visible and invisible forms of violence. Visible forms of violence are directly seen in behaviors and actions taken by the violator. While invisible forms of violence are those that are not necessarily violent actions or behaviors, but things such as a violent culture or a structure that is violent by being too repressive or exploitative. These forms of violence feed off of themselves in a cyclical nature in the sense that cultural and structural invisible violence can be the cause of direct visible violence.  For example, as we see in India, the invisible violence of the culture is directly causing visible violence in forms of domestic abuse.

By Serene

“Nickel and Dimed”

“Nickel and Dimed”
1) To survive on the federal minimum wage at this time in my life would be impossible. I have house and car loans along with living expensive that would be unthinkable to be able to pay each month on minimum wage. If for some reason I did have to take a minimum wage job and try to survive on it would require a huge readjustment in living conditions and a reorganization of my priorities.
2) A family with two young children trying to survive on minimum wage earnings each month would require a lot of resourcefulness, they would have to budget every penny. They could also use local food pantries, food stamps, WIC and any other resource they could find. Today it seems that families like these are becoming more prevalent in our society we hear of people losing their jobs and being forced to take any means necessary to survive.
3) No I don’t think minimum wage should be raised I think the cost of living should be lowered. The cost of everything is getting out of control, from medical costs to heating oil. The rich get richer and the poor get poorer and the middle class support them all. Instead of sending all our jobs overseas and to Mexico why not keep them here and keep people working. Lower the cost of living by lowering our taxes and revamping medical costs.
4) No I don’t agree with the management style of the people who monitor minimum wage employees. The reason they probably manage the way they do is they have had no formal training in management skills. Places that these people work do not take time to train employees to be leaders. The turnaround on these employees is so large that they don’t want to waste the time or money training these people just so they can leave.
5) The reason managers have to monitor minimum wage employees so closely is to keep them busy and not let them have a moment of rest. If they are not busy then the manager is not making money for the corporate headquarters in some far away city. They also may feel that the employee is trying to take advantage of them. This type of management style is somewhat fair because these people are paid to work and not sit around. It is unfair because these people are only making minimum wage so the management should relax and be a little less hard on them. This may have a resounding effect on the employees who would think the management cares and they may have a better outlook on their jobs and may feel better about themselves.


Domerstic Violence


According to Elaine leeder who wrote “Domestic Violence: A Cross- Cultural View” believes that wife battering is a prevalent and normal family dynamic in India. She say that because in India wife battering is an everyday affair that it is not considered a problem. Their justifications for the beatings are said to be because families are unable to keep up with inflation. Causing the feeling of hopelessness leading to drunken fits of rage. In rural India abuse is tolerated for dowry problems, a wife’s infidelity, her neglect of household duties, or her disobedience to her husbands dictates.

As a result of industrialization and modernization middle- class families have experienced stress causing an increase in child abuse. With the competition and upward mobility, the families having less support to raise children .  There is also a pattern  of corporal punishment in raising children. The children are brought up to obey their parents, and if they disobey they are disciplined.

In Vietnam there is two different kinds of violence, Invisible and Visible violence. Invisible violence is not physical instead it is when men use intimidation and fear to control the women. One example of an invisible violence that they use is the Vietnam women for the most part work at labor markets all day then come home and do about five to six more hours of house work while their husbands act like kings. Visible violence is when the men physically abuse their women. Visible violence can even sometimes cause death. One study found that in Vietnam 17.5% of deaths in 1992 were caused by family violence.



A Discourse on Cross-Cultural Domestic Violence

Studies done in the mid 80’s to mid 90’s point to a prevalence and general social acceptance of domestic violence against women in India. Indeed, it is so commonplace that a 1997 survey found only 22% of women willing to talk about it. The unwillingness to talk about wife beating and domestic violence wasn’t because these women were afraid to talk about it rather, it was so common place they thought it hardly worth mentioning.

In India, especially rural India, men have a “right” to beat their wives. If the wife misbehaves, neglects her chores or her wifely duties, has not born her husband any sons or if the husband gets drunk and depressed, he is within his rights to beat his wife. A drunken beating is usually tolerated as long as it’s not too severe, by village standards, and the man is generally a good husband. This mode of thinking has been culturally accepted for generations.

Female infanticide has also been culturally accepted for generations. Women carry very little worth except to bear strong male children, satisfy the husband and do housework. Males provide economic support and defend the family while females leave their birth families and are an economic drain. It is a womans societal expectation to provide male heirs. Those who don’t or can’t, are severely chastised and abused. These societal norms are prevalent in all aspects of Indian culture from the poor rural areas to the middle and upper class urban dwellers.

Modernization and industrialization have only served to increase domestic violence. Corporal punishment, according to Elaine Leeder, “… is so well entrenched in Indian society that even the middle and upper classes admit to using it.” With the shift from an agrarian society to a more modern and industrialized society comes competition to be ever more upwardly mobile. This puts greater economic and social stress on the family. The husbands react to this stress by taking out their frustrations on their wives. The easy access to alcohol and it’s affordability do not help matters.

The children also suffer from this scenario. As I pointed out, corporal punishment is the standard by which men maintain control and vent their frustrations. Modernization and industrialization has also sent shild abuse statistics sky rocketing. Almost 57% of college educated parents admitted using “acceptable” forms of violence while almost 42% admitted abuse. The actual percentages are probably higher as the data was taken from a relatively small sample.

Why do these women tolerate such unjust behavior and attitudes? Because it has been a part of their culture for centuries. They know of no other way of life. For women, there is no life outside of marriage. A single mother would be stoned to death or at the very least outcast from her village which in India also amounts to a death sentence.

   Violence need not be physical to be present. Corporal punishment and wife beating are only the “visible” forms of violence. In Vietnam, for example, women work long hours in the factories and are then expected to come home and do housework. They may spend five to six hours a night on household chores. This is the “Invisible Violence” common in Vietnam. Vietnamese culture is deeply rooted in the
teachings of Confucius whereby they “think highly of men and slightly of women.” Poor socio-economic status and it’s stressors coupled with Confucian dogma give men any number of reason to vent their frustrations out on women. Legally, in Vietnam, men and women share equal status. Culturally, the disparity is obvious and not soon to change.

   These are not the only two countries in the world to have domestic violence and child abuse issues. In Japan, domestic violence is so prevelent and common place they don’t even have a word for it. In the United States, according to a 1986 study by Gelles and Straus, “at least a million children are abused a year.” If the two most supposedly “civilized” nations in the world are guilty of this level of domestic violence and abuse, imagine what goes on in the rest of the world.

By: D

Domestic Violence: a Cross-Cultural View

Wife battering is very common in Indian. Wife often get beaten if she does not behave herself, if she has been sterilized, wife’s infidelity, neglect of household duties, dowry problems, her disobedience to the husband, and also it appears that if women has a male children they are less likely to be beaten. Abuse is tolerated if the husband is drunk, but otherwise it is a good husband. In India there a tremendous discrimination against girl children. Boys are needed as economic assets, for the money they send home if they move away, and they stay with their families after marriage and maintain the parents in old age. Now girls move away when they marry and are unable to help the parents with money, or when they are in old age.

Industrialization and modernization in India middle-class has caused them lots of stress and that has rise on child abused among the families.  Children who do not follow the house rules, is more likely to be abused. Female infanticide (killing a child who is under one year old) and child neglect are also child abuse major issues in Indian.

In rural Indian, women believe that alcohol provokes the abuse. I personally think that it is true, because when someone is very drunk, they do not know what they are doing, they just do no matter what it is. It is like that the alcohol give them courage to do whatever.

Vietnam has two types of violence: “Invisible violence” and “Visible violence”. “Invisible violence” is not a physical abuse, but still leave them in fear. Like a Vietnamese women comes home after work and still spend five to six hours a night doing housework ate home. Now a “visible violence” it is a physical abuse and can lead to death. The visible violence has caused a large number of divorces in families.

It is very sad to see that these abuse occurs in every part of the world. That has to be a way to stop these things. Women have to start reporting to the police if you or your children are being abused. Because if they don’t do anything they will continue to do it and will think that it is ok to do it. And we have to show them that it is not. By doing that it will somehow change this.

By: T

Not Getting By in America

Barbara Ehrenreich describes in her article “Nickel and Dimed: On (Not) Getting By in America”, her experiences trying to survive while working minimum wage jobs in Key West, Florida. An eye-opening experiment for her and anyone reading her story, it proved just how hard it is for many people to survive in America. I have been fortunate to have found jobs that always paid more than the federal minimum wage. At $7.25 per hour, I would never be able to afford half the things that I take for granted now. Though I have a hard enough time making ends meet as it is, bringing in a paycheck like that every week simply wouldn’t cover the expenses. Consider that $7.25 an hour equates to $290 gross weekly income. I am taxed roughly 20% which brings my net weekly paycheck to about $232. My rent which is very low compared to the average tenant is nearly half that amount. I am fortunate to not have a car payment but I still spend about $35 a week on gas. Not to mention my $100-a-month car and cell phone payments. Further budgeting a measly $50 a week for food, my entire paycheck is effectively exhausted.

A family of four, if attempting to survive on two minimum wage jobs would be far less fortunate than I. They would want to have a 2 bedroom apartment at least, which runs no less than $600 and that’s if you catch a break. A 3 bedroom living arraignment would be upward of $700 for anything with no leaks in the roof or bullet holes in the walls. Throw in daycare, diapers, and an endless number of surprise expenses and one is no longer surprised at the amount of welfare dependents.

I have mixed feelings about minimum wages. One argument states that setting a minimum wage raises the entire economic plane. Or in other words, it drives up the cost of living for everyone, effectively neutralizing the purpose of having a wage minimum to began with. The thinking with this theory is that employers would find it necessary to keep wages at a certain level to compete with other businesses.  On the other hand, if there was no minimum then employers could pay as a low a wage as they wanted. They could underpay more if they were a major employer in the area, potentially leaving a region in a lower standard of living.

I have much experience dealing with bosses concerned with the corporate image of their business. These people suspect that each and every one of their employees are professional criminals and thieves. The slightest misplacement of minuscule items is grounds for thorough investigations and questioning. They expect their underlings to continually work nonstop and whenever they are called. Personal crisis is regarded with annoyance and often consequences if work is missed. In short, they rule with iron fists, generally for reasons they don’t understand, forgetting they often come from the same lowly beginnings as the very people they love to berate and belittle.

BY/; Jess

Prostitution Discussion

Many people believe that prostitution is a free choice. However, after researching several studies of prostitutes, Melissa Farley disagrees. Since 1993, Farley has been researching prostitution and human trafficking in several countries. Her research shows high rates of post traumatic stress disorder among the women studied, who worked as prostitutes whether on the street, in a brothel, or in strip clubs. Farley and her coauthors found this research to contradict the popular myths about prostitution such as the idea that people who are in prostituion have freely consented to it. Farley’s research has lead her to believe that prostitution is commonly not a free choice. Farley reports in her studies that 89% of the respondents interviewed wished to leave prostituion but lacked the means to do so. I agree with Farley and understand that this ‘profession’ is a dangerous and life threatening one. I don’t believe that any person would willingly dream of becoming a prostitute, however I understand that in some circumstances it becomes the only way for an individual to survive. For example, 84% of women interviewed in Farley’s studies reported a history of homelessness.

It is debated whether legalizing or decriminalizing prostitution would reduce it’s harmful effects. For example, countries such as Germany and New Zealand have legalized  prostitution. The differences between leagalized and decriminalized prostitution are not experienced by the prostitute. Legalized prostitution is a state- sponsored activity in which the state collects taxes from this profession, just like any other. Decriminalized prositution means that all laws regarding prostitution would be removed,  resulting in prostitution and all it’s forms becoming legal. Melissa Farley is opposed to both legalization and decriminalization of prostitution claiming that it does nothing to decrease the harmful effects both physically and psychologically that the women in prostitution endure. It is not the legal status of prostitution that causes the harm, it’s the act of prositution itself. Some claim that legalization or decriminalization of prostitution would decrease the shame and isolation that many prostitutes feel because of their view in society, however women in Dutch prostitution rarely register as legal prostitutes, depriving themselves of legal benefits such as retirement, simply because they are ashamed to be labeled as one. I agree with Farely and do not believe that prostituion should be legalized or decriminalized, simply because I do not believe it would allieviate any of the problems caused by prostitution. We can see this proven by the countries who have decriminalized prostitution, many of them seeing an increase in illegal, hidden and street prostitution. Countries who have legalized prositution are seeing an increase in human trafficking which brings new horrors and more problems to deal with.

Prostitution can be seen as an intersection of race, sex, and class oppression due to the fact that oppressed people are forced into this type of work by poverty and lack of education. People who view prostitution as a free choice and form of sexual liberation should analyze more closely the relationship between sexual liberation and prostitution. Sexual liberation implies the release of oppresive factors such as people, beliefs, and conditions that would control a person’s sexuality. However, studies such as those found by Melissa Farley assert that prostitution degrades and exploits those who engage in such acts, ultimately contradicting the values that sexual liberation promotes.

Domestic Violence

                                                Domestic Violence


Domestic Violence is a huge issue around the world. In India domestic violence is a norm when it comes to a man beating his wife.  In India’s society it is common for a husband to beat his wife for various reasons. Woman who have a son instead of a daughter are less likely to get beaten. Woman can get beaten if they are sterilized due to their husband fearing of their wife’s cheating. In India it is ok for a man to beat his wife as long as he is a good husband. Woman get beat for cheating, if she does not do everything that is expected of her, according to the man’s standards in the house, or if the woman is not obeying her husband.

Industrialization and modernization have led to an increase of child abuse in India due to an intense completion that puts stress on a family of the middle class. Child abuse is also from a child who does not comply to a family’s rules. Child abuse can also come from with more families moving away from a joint family, then that family does not have enough support or help with the household duties which causes more stress.

In Vietnam violence is a big issue towards woman. They have two different kinds of violence, Invisible and Visible violence. Invisible violence is not physical but it is when your significant other makes you feel intimidated and makes you live in fear. Visible violence is what you can see. It is when you are being physically abused. With visible violence people can see the injuries on a woman and sometimes can cause death. When one is in a invisible domestic violence they tend to feel as though they are nothing. The man in the relationship makes the woman feel worthless in her life. He may verbally abuse you. While in a visible domestic violence a man will be angry about something that has nothing to do with the woman but takes it out on her. The man takes it out on the woman physically abusing them.


Invisible Privilege

On the essay “Invisible Privilege” by Paula Rothenberg, she talks about the friendship between her daughter Andrea a, who is white and her daughter’s friend Jewel, who is black. They were best friends for a brief time while there were at school. But they didn’t know their differences in their home lives. When Jewel went to Andrea’s house she was amazed with her house and more surprised when she knew that was more than one bathroom. Jewel realized how different they were when she first went to Andrea’s house.

Lower class is more likely to know about privilege than higher class. Because lower class cannot afford to have a big house with more than one-bathroom, or to have a Mercedes, or even go to expensive restaurant. They only do or have what they can afford. Unlike higher class they do whatever, and do not know how it is not to have what they want. Now Andrea was uncomfortable at Jewel’s house because she was not used to the way lower class live, like only one light bulb burning, only one bathroom, everybody speaking at the same time, and so on. She was terrified, and because of that difference between them, their friendship ended.

I think that people can overcome social difference. But some differences might be a little hard to overcome at first, but not impossible, just need to be focus and to remember that everybody is the same, no matter what color, race, or culture you are. Now if a person is greedy, who just care about money, what others have or don’t have, they will not overcome these social difference. In the case of Jewel and Andrea, they were too young to work out their differences.

By Deisiane