Domestic Violence

According to Elaine Leeder in the article “domestic Violence A cross Cultural View” it is acceptable and the norm in a India household. This is so because the man in the household is dominant and the woman are submissive. So it is acceptable that the man beats the woman if she does not live up to the expectations to the man of the household. In rural India abuse is tolerated for dowry problems, a wife’s infidelity, her neglect of household duties, or her disobedience to her husbands commands and wants.

Industrialization and modernization have led to increased child abuse in India because the children have a greater responsibility to make sure they do the workload that an american adult would do. If they fail or don’t do it to their fathers expectations they are beaten and abused. In this culture it is normal so I don’t think of it as abuse but rather discipline. Because their expectations are higher than they would be here in the us the discipline for failing is going to be higher.

The difference between invisible and visible violence in Vietnam is invisible violence is when the man does not harm the woman physically but yet emotionally. He can do this by intimidation and fear. Visible violence is physical when the man beats the woman. In Vietnam the woman are expected to work all day then come home and work in the home and take of the man and if they don’t  they are abused either physically or emotionally.

Domestic Violence

Domestic violence is a global problem which occurs in both industrialized and developing countries.Domestic violence is a very serious social problem if not dealt with can go a long way to affect individuals and society a whole.Wife battering is prevalent and normal in India to the extent that is considered normal and not taken serious.According to a survey taken,20% of people who experience domestic violence considered it normal because they were used to it.Many factors causes the prevalence of wife battering in India.These factors include: drunken husbands who come home and beat their wives due to their frustrations in life,dowry,neglect of household duties and so on.

Child abuse has occurred since time immemorial .Industrialization and modernization has led to the increase of child abuse.In India middle class families experience a lot of stress due to modernization and industrialization because of this children are abused in order for parents to fit in society or to earn a living.Also corporal punishment which is a form of child abuse is used very much in India to raise children.They believe that the right way to punish a child for his/her mistake is through corporal punishment.Lastly,because society considers male children for industrial purposes,female children who are born to Indian parents are mostly neglected which is also a form of abuse.

Visible violence can also be called physical violence.This is a type of violence in which husbands beat their wives due to one reason or the other.The women who are being abused feel that the situation is predestined in accordance with Confucian ideology.One report indicates that 87.5%  of divorces in 1992 was as a result of violence.Invisible violence on the other hand is characterized by fear and intimidation.An example is women coming home from work and doing house chores for six hours.

By Lynsy

Domestic Violence

The book “Domestic Violence: a Cross-Cultural View” by Elaine Leeder explores the forms of domestic violence that occur in many different cultures. For example, wife beating is a form of domestic violence that is very common in India. She reveals this horrible truth as more of a cultural norm in Indian society, stating that only 22% of women surveyed  admitted to having had been beaten. This seems like a generally low number, however as Leeder mentions, we must take into account the fact that in India it is unacceptable to admit to being abused and only those women who are seriously suffering from the effects of such abuse would admit to it. Shockingly, the majority of women getting abused wouldn’t even think to mention it as a problem because the practice is so commonplace. Many believe that such violence is prevalent in Indian households because of family norms practiced by this culture. Such violence is socially acceptable under certain circumstances such as a woman’s infidelity, dowry problems, neglect of the household duties, or disobedience to her husband. Wife beating has become so tightly knit into Indian society that it is not seen as a problem unless it is very extreme, in which case an intervention occurs by the village monk.  The same goes for child abuse, as the Indian family values strict discipline and obedience of children.

Industrialization and modernization have influenced such domestic violences, and has lead to a rise in child abuse in India. This is because these processes lead to rising economic expectations which the family must endure. These pressures are released in the household and put on the children who will be beaten and abused in hopes that this corporal punishment will lead them to be socially skilled and responsible adults.

This leads to the discussion of visible and invisible forms of violence. Visible forms of violence are directly seen in behaviors and actions taken by the violator. While invisible forms of violence are those that are not necessarily violent actions or behaviors, but things such as a violent culture or a structure that is violent by being too repressive or exploitative. These forms of violence feed off of themselves in a cyclical nature in the sense that cultural and structural invisible violence can be the cause of direct visible violence.  For example, as we see in India, the invisible violence of the culture is directly causing visible violence in forms of domestic abuse.

By Serene

Domerstic Violence


According to Elaine leeder who wrote “Domestic Violence: A Cross- Cultural View” believes that wife battering is a prevalent and normal family dynamic in India. She say that because in India wife battering is an everyday affair that it is not considered a problem. Their justifications for the beatings are said to be because families are unable to keep up with inflation. Causing the feeling of hopelessness leading to drunken fits of rage. In rural India abuse is tolerated for dowry problems, a wife’s infidelity, her neglect of household duties, or her disobedience to her husbands dictates.

As a result of industrialization and modernization middle- class families have experienced stress causing an increase in child abuse. With the competition and upward mobility, the families having less support to raise children .  There is also a pattern  of corporal punishment in raising children. The children are brought up to obey their parents, and if they disobey they are disciplined.

In Vietnam there is two different kinds of violence, Invisible and Visible violence. Invisible violence is not physical instead it is when men use intimidation and fear to control the women. One example of an invisible violence that they use is the Vietnam women for the most part work at labor markets all day then come home and do about five to six more hours of house work while their husbands act like kings. Visible violence is when the men physically abuse their women. Visible violence can even sometimes cause death. One study found that in Vietnam 17.5% of deaths in 1992 were caused by family violence.



A Discourse on Cross-Cultural Domestic Violence

Studies done in the mid 80’s to mid 90’s point to a prevalence and general social acceptance of domestic violence against women in India. Indeed, it is so commonplace that a 1997 survey found only 22% of women willing to talk about it. The unwillingness to talk about wife beating and domestic violence wasn’t because these women were afraid to talk about it rather, it was so common place they thought it hardly worth mentioning.

In India, especially rural India, men have a “right” to beat their wives. If the wife misbehaves, neglects her chores or her wifely duties, has not born her husband any sons or if the husband gets drunk and depressed, he is within his rights to beat his wife. A drunken beating is usually tolerated as long as it’s not too severe, by village standards, and the man is generally a good husband. This mode of thinking has been culturally accepted for generations.

Female infanticide has also been culturally accepted for generations. Women carry very little worth except to bear strong male children, satisfy the husband and do housework. Males provide economic support and defend the family while females leave their birth families and are an economic drain. It is a womans societal expectation to provide male heirs. Those who don’t or can’t, are severely chastised and abused. These societal norms are prevalent in all aspects of Indian culture from the poor rural areas to the middle and upper class urban dwellers.

Modernization and industrialization have only served to increase domestic violence. Corporal punishment, according to Elaine Leeder, “… is so well entrenched in Indian society that even the middle and upper classes admit to using it.” With the shift from an agrarian society to a more modern and industrialized society comes competition to be ever more upwardly mobile. This puts greater economic and social stress on the family. The husbands react to this stress by taking out their frustrations on their wives. The easy access to alcohol and it’s affordability do not help matters.

The children also suffer from this scenario. As I pointed out, corporal punishment is the standard by which men maintain control and vent their frustrations. Modernization and industrialization has also sent shild abuse statistics sky rocketing. Almost 57% of college educated parents admitted using “acceptable” forms of violence while almost 42% admitted abuse. The actual percentages are probably higher as the data was taken from a relatively small sample.

Why do these women tolerate such unjust behavior and attitudes? Because it has been a part of their culture for centuries. They know of no other way of life. For women, there is no life outside of marriage. A single mother would be stoned to death or at the very least outcast from her village which in India also amounts to a death sentence.

   Violence need not be physical to be present. Corporal punishment and wife beating are only the “visible” forms of violence. In Vietnam, for example, women work long hours in the factories and are then expected to come home and do housework. They may spend five to six hours a night on household chores. This is the “Invisible Violence” common in Vietnam. Vietnamese culture is deeply rooted in the
teachings of Confucius whereby they “think highly of men and slightly of women.” Poor socio-economic status and it’s stressors coupled with Confucian dogma give men any number of reason to vent their frustrations out on women. Legally, in Vietnam, men and women share equal status. Culturally, the disparity is obvious and not soon to change.

   These are not the only two countries in the world to have domestic violence and child abuse issues. In Japan, domestic violence is so prevelent and common place they don’t even have a word for it. In the United States, according to a 1986 study by Gelles and Straus, “at least a million children are abused a year.” If the two most supposedly “civilized” nations in the world are guilty of this level of domestic violence and abuse, imagine what goes on in the rest of the world.

By: D

Domestic Violence

                                                Domestic Violence


Domestic Violence is a huge issue around the world. In India domestic violence is a norm when it comes to a man beating his wife.  In India’s society it is common for a husband to beat his wife for various reasons. Woman who have a son instead of a daughter are less likely to get beaten. Woman can get beaten if they are sterilized due to their husband fearing of their wife’s cheating. In India it is ok for a man to beat his wife as long as he is a good husband. Woman get beat for cheating, if she does not do everything that is expected of her, according to the man’s standards in the house, or if the woman is not obeying her husband.

Industrialization and modernization have led to an increase of child abuse in India due to an intense completion that puts stress on a family of the middle class. Child abuse is also from a child who does not comply to a family’s rules. Child abuse can also come from with more families moving away from a joint family, then that family does not have enough support or help with the household duties which causes more stress.

In Vietnam violence is a big issue towards woman. They have two different kinds of violence, Invisible and Visible violence. Invisible violence is not physical but it is when your significant other makes you feel intimidated and makes you live in fear. Visible violence is what you can see. It is when you are being physically abused. With visible violence people can see the injuries on a woman and sometimes can cause death. When one is in a invisible domestic violence they tend to feel as though they are nothing. The man in the relationship makes the woman feel worthless in her life. He may verbally abuse you. While in a visible domestic violence a man will be angry about something that has nothing to do with the woman but takes it out on her. The man takes it out on the woman physically abusing them.


Domestic Violence A Cross Cultural View

Wife battering is prevalent and part of the normal family dynamic in India because of rising economic expectations and the problems are acted out at home. Alcohol is widely available, and a good part of wife battering is said to occur because the drinking helps to alleviate the feeling of hopelessness that accompanies poverty.  Additionally, the culture as a whole does not place a great deal of value on women, the role of the woman, and the ability of the women to be a breadwinner. Women are seen as the matriarch of the family and their cultural value seems to be bringing forth as many sons as humanly possible. Because women are not seen as helpful with the stresses of the country’s economic woes, they bear the brunt of the family’s stress—literally.

Industrialization and modernization have led to increased child abuse in India because of an environment conducive to this phenomenon. There is now great competition and upward mobility amongst children, and there is strict discipline in the family. There is less support to raise children and fewer people to share the household tasks as the family moves away from the joint family. It is notable that gender specific child abuse occurs against females. This is because of the strong preference for male children. Girls move away from the family when they marry and cannot contribute to the family upkeep. In India’s culture, boys are more likely to stay within the family household and care for his parents into their elderly years. Girls are not actively killed, they are just neglected so badly they often die from lack of care. Additionally, more abortions occur when the parents discover they are expecting a female.

In Vietnam, men act as kings in the home while women work and are the breadwinners of the household. After working shifts of hard labor, Vietnamese women return home and spend five to six more hours doing housework. This is called “invisible violence”, because while there may not be physical violence within the relationship, intimidation and fear drive the relationship. “Visible violence” is actual physical violence. One study found that 17.5% of deaths in 1992 in Vietnam were caused by family violence.


— Katelyn

Domestic Violence A Cross Cultural View

“Domestic Violence A Cross Cultural View”
1) Although child abuse has always been a part of the lower class culture in India, in recent years it has escalated into all classes of culture. This increase in child abuse can be attributed to stress associated with becoming an industrial and modern society. As more and more people move from a rural setting into an unfamiliar urban environment the pressure placed upon the parents of these children to succeed is unbearable to the point of taking it out on the children. What is worse is the fact that “corporal” or extreme abuse is on rise. This type of abuse is directed more toward female children than their male counter parts. The reason for this singular attack is the fact that in India, like other parts of the world sees a female child as a burden. A female child in their views is unable to farm the land or send money to support the family; also the family must put up a dowry when the female gets married and if the dowry is not enough the bride may be held for ransom by her husband family until a suitable dowry has been paid. In some extreme circumstances female babies have been “Neonaticide” or killed at birth or they may be left unattended with little or no care to expire in short period of time.
It is sad to think that a country like India, which is on the rise as an economic power house, still turns to such barbaric practices. But in these types of cultures these seem to be the norm it is excepted form of stress release.
2) In Vietnam there is two types of abuse used against women the “invisible violence” and the “visible violence”. The” invisible violence” is not physical and leaves no marks but causes women to fear and be intimidated by their husbands. This type of abuse is found in both urban educated the rural poor women. Woman after working a second shift job are expected to come home and do house work for another five to six hours. Many women who are raised in the Confucian culture are afraid to leave. The “visible violence” in Vietnam is a major reason the divorce rate has risen since 1992, it has affected the percent of deaths related to family violence.
3) The reason men in these societies think it is okay to beat on their wives and abuse their children is it is a norm. They saw their dads abuse their moms and they were probably abused by them also. So in order to change this norm we need to start educating these men that it is not okay to do any harm to your love ones and that abuse in any form is wrong. Period. It will take a lot of work but it can be done they need to break the cycle.


Domestic Violence

The common occurance of woman being beaten in India is astounding. It seems like a common way of life for many of the women in India and the way their societies are allows it. It is an eye opener to see that almost one quarter of women are being beaten and that is only the wives that are admitting it. Alcohol is considered a large reason for the beatings but that seems to just be one way for a husband blame the beatings on something other tahn themselves. Abuse is a standard of living with the children being reprimanded by getting hit by their parents. They will grow up to do the same to their children and wives. The wives in Japan are experiencing violence also and on larger scales, a larger percentage of Japanese wives are beaten than Indian. This doesn’t subside when the woman try to get out of this situation. It can lead to worse beatings and some are beaten to death. I watched the movie “Yesterday” and the woman was getting beat by her husband and an officer saw it happening and looked the other way. This situation is very common in Africa and is looked at as normal. In vietnam domestic violence is against the law and is taken very seriously. I suppose it depends on your culture whether things can change or they will just carry on the way they are. Its too bad people can’t feel safe in their own homes. A governmant in some cases just needs to step in and “police” domestic violence.

Domestic Violence

While reading chapter 41 I came to realize domestic violence is an on going issue in the world we live in today. It is a common practice for men In Indian cultures to beat their wives. Although the thought of beating your wife in the United States is highly illegal and out of cultural norms, to India’s culture it is remarkably normal. When it comes to childbirth, in India having a boy is valued much greater than having a girl. The reason for this is because girls are looked at as negative weight. Girls in Indian society tend to move away and marry with different families where as boys tend to stay within the family and help out with financial assistance, whether its working jobs to help pay, or helping the father work.

One duty a man must fulfill in the family is keeping his wife in check. This means that if the wife does the slightest bit of wrong she quickly needs to be told so. By being told she is doing wrong is not good enough Indian society feels. The way the men go about doing so is beating their wives. If a man only beats his wife under the influence of alcohol he is considered good. India’s culture believes that “a good husband and only beats his wife excessively when drunk” neglecting the fact that too many men are beating their wife to a pulp and do not realize it. If the wife exceeds the reasonable standards and acceptable circumstances, set forth by the village. The townships leader will interfere if the beating is taken overboard.

This is absolutely not the way to treat any woman. Although that is there belief and norm, as being an outsider looking in I cannot fathom the thought of putting that much torment and abuse towards any human being, male or female.

By. Luke